Self-Representation

State Links

Alaska

Alaska Court Rules of Professional Conduct. Rule 1.2, Scope of Representation. Includes limited-scope representation rules and rules about clients that expect out-of-scope representation.

Arizona

17A A.R.S. Sup. Ct. Rules, Rule 42, Rules of Prof. Conduct, ER 1.2c. “A lawyer may limit the scope of the representation if the limitation is reasonable under the circumstances and the client gives informed consent.”  Note: One must fill out a brief online form to access the rules. 

California

California Rules of Court, Rule 5.425, Limited Scope Representation, application of rules. Details rules governing limited scope representation.

California Rules of Professional Conduct, Rule 1.650, Limited Legal Services Program. Details rules governing limited legal services program. 

Colorado

Colorado Rules of Civil Procedure and Rules of Professional Conduct enabling unbundled services.

a) C.R.C.P 11, requiring lawyers who prepare pleadings in limited representation to sign them;

b) C.R.C.P. 121,clarifying that the preparation of pleadings does not constitute an appearance;

c) R.P.C. 1.2,clarifying that the preparation of pleadings does not constitute an appearance;

d) R.P.C. 4.2 and 4,3, creating a presumption that a party receiving limited services is unrepresented insofar as communications with the party are concerned.

Connecticut

Notice of Limited Appearance Pilot Program. Family Matters and Family Support Magistrate Matters.

Connecticut Rules of Professional Conduct, Rule 1.2, Scope of Representation. Connecticut Practice Book, see page 7. 

DC

Superior Court of the District of Columbia Administrative Order 14-10. Limited Appearances in the Civil Division, Probate Division, Tax Division, Family Court, and Domestic Violence Unit. An attorney may enter a limited appearance when representing paid or pro bono clients in the following divisions and branches of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia: Civil Division, Probate Division, Tax Division, Family Court, and Domestic Violence Unit.

D.C. Rules of Professional Conduct, Rule 1.2, Scope of Representation.

Delaware

Delaware Lawyer Rules of Professional Conduct, Rule 1.2, Scope of Representation. Although this rule affords the lawyer and client substantial latitude to limit the representation, the limitation must be reasonable under the circumstances.

Florida

Florida Rule of Professional Conduct 4-1.2(c). Explicitly permits limited representation, but consent must be in writing.

Florida Rule of Professional Conduct 4-4.2(b). Establishes the presumption that a self-represented party is unrepresented unless notified to the contrary in writing.

Georgia

Georgia Rules of Professional Conduct, Rule 1.2, Scope of Representation. An agreement concerning the scope of representation must accord with the Rules of Professional Conduct and other law. Thus, the client may not be asked to agree to representation so limited in scope as to violate Rule 1.1: Competence, or to surrender the right to terminate the lawyer's services or the right to settle litigation that the lawyer might wish to continue. The agreement should be in writing.

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maine Rules of Professional Conduct, Rule 1.2, Scope of Representation.

Maine Rules of Civil Procedure enabling unbundled legal services include:

a) Maine Rule of Civil Procedure 5 governing service;

b) Maine Rule of Civil Procedure 11 governing the signing of pleadings;

c) Maine Rule of Civil Procedure 89(a) governing the withdrawal of attorneys.

Maryland

Maryland Rules of Professional Conduct, Rule 1.2, Scope of Representation.  Although this rule affords the lawyer and client substantial latitude to limit the representation, the limitation must be reasonable under the circumstances.

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Montana

Montana Rules of Professional Conduct, Rule 1.2, Scope of Representation.  A lawyer may limit the scope of the representation if the limitation is reasonable under the circumstances and the client gives informed consent.

Nebraska

Nebraska Rules of Professional Conduct, Rule 1.2, Scope of Representation. Although an agreement for a limited representation does not exempt a lawyer from the duty to provide competent representation, the limitation is a factor to be considered when determining the legal knowledge, skill, thoroughness, and preparation reasonably necessary for the representation.

Nevada

Rules of Practice of the Eighth Judicial District Court of the State of Nevada, Rule 5.28. Requires signed pleadings and a notice of the limited representation to the court and governs the procedure for withdrawal.

New Hampshire

New Mexico

North Carolina

North Carolina Rules of Professional Conduct, Rule 1.2, Scope of Representation. Does not require written consent for limited-scope representation.

North Dakota

Oklahoma

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Texas Rules of Professional Conduct, Rule 1.02, Scope of Representation.  “A lawyer should carry through to conclusion all matters undertaken for a client. If a lawyer’s representation is limited to a specific matter or matters, the relationship terminates when the matter has been resolved. If a lawyer has represented a client over a substantial period in a variety of matters, the client may sometimes assume that the lawyer will continue to serve on a continuing basis unless the lawyer gives notice to the contrary. Doubt about whether a client-lawyer relationship still exists should be clarified by the lawyer, preferably in writing, so that the client will not mistakenly suppose the lawyer is looking after the clients affairs when the lawyer has ceased to do so. For example, if a lawyer has handled a judicial or administrative proceeding that produced a result adverse to the client but has not been specifically instructed concerning pursuit of an appeal, the lawyer should advise the client of the possibility of appeal before relinquishing responsibility for the matter.”

Utah

Virginia

Washington

Washington Rules of Professional Conduct governing unbundling include:

a) RPC 1.2(c), permitting the limited scope of representation with consent;

b) RPC 4.2(b), creating a presumption that a person is unrepresented unless opposing party is notified otherwise;

c) RPC 4.3(b), creating a presumption that a person is unrepresented unless opposing party is notified otherwise;

d) RPC 6.5, governing the responsibility to determine conflicts in nonprofit and court annexed limited service programs.

Washington Civil Rules and Washington Civil Rules of Limited Jurisdiction governing unbundling include:

a) CR 4.2, expressly permitting limited entry of appearance;

b) CRLJ 4.2, governing limited appearances;

c) CR 11, permitting a lawyer who assists with drafting to rely on the self-represented party's representation of facts;

d) CRLJ 11, permitting a lawyer who assists with drafting to rely on the self-represented party's representation of facts;

e) CR 70.1, expressly allowing limited appearances in litigation;

f) CRLJ 70.1, expressly allowing limited appearances in litigation.

West Virginia

Wyoming