ADR

State Links

Alabama

There are only a few pilot court-connected projects; ADR programs in that state are mostly private.The state spends under $100,000 on court-connected ADR and for administration of the Alabama Center for Dispute Resolution.

Alaska

The State Justice Institute (SJI) awarded $20,000 for training in ADR. The state legislature contributed $10,000 to the same effort.

Arkansas

There are no court-connected ADR programs. The few pilot programs are funded through federal grants.

California

There is no direct state appropriation. Programs are funded indirectly through the state court budget. In FY 96-97, the courts spent $29 million on custody and mediation programs and judicial arbitration.

Colorado

ADR programs received $9,000 in state appropriations. This figure did not represent an annual appropriation; moreover, it was returned to the legislature in 1998. The Office of Dispute Resolution (ODR) began in 1983 and received funding from the legislature through the early 90’s. ODR has since relied solely on fees paid by clients. The $9,000 appropriation is a recent amount and will probably not be continued.

Connecticut

ADR programs receive no direct state appropriations. ADR funding does fall within the state court administration budget.

DC

The Multi-Door Dispute Resolution Division is funded by a portion of the court’s appropriation from Congress. This pays for up to nineteen staff members, stipends for neutrals, malpractice insurance, training, and other expenses. No fees are charged to parties using the Multi-Door program.

Florida

The Florida state office receives no direct state monies. Funds come from a trust, funded by filing fees (locally collected) and mediation certification fees. Annually, $150,000 from the trust fund is distributed to innovative local ADR projects by the state office. Trial court ADR is funded by user fees, county appropriations, and contracts with mediators. [Note: The appellate program, which did not exist in 1996-97, now receives state appropriation money. Also, a 1998 Constitutional amendment will bring about the replacement of county appropriations by state appropriations.]

Georgia

There are 31 court-connected ADR programs throughout the state. These programs receive funds from local filing fees, local budgets, and sometimes from their respective counties. The state does not provide direct financial support; however, the Georgia Office of Dispute Resolution, which provides training and administration, is part of the Supreme Court of Georgia; thus the court connected programs receive the benefit of state money indirectly when they use the Office’s services. The Office received an appropriation of $249,066 from the state legislature in FY97.

Hawaii

There is no state appropriation for court-connected ADR programs.

Idaho

ADR programs receive funding from disputing parties and county governments.

Illinois

ADR programs receive their primary support from appearance fees. These fees are set by statute and are based on population; they are in the range of $8-10 per appearance. The 11 ADR programs are self-sufficient but do receive some money from the state general fund. This state money mainly supports personnel and amounts to approximately $60-70,000 per program.

Indiana

ADR programs receive their primary support from appearance fees. These fees are set by statute and are based on population; they are in the range of $8-10 per appearance. The 11 ADR programs are self-sufficient but do receive some money from the state general fund. This state money mainly supports personnel and amounts to approximately $60-70,000 per program.

Kansas

ADR programs receive a percentage of court cost revenues. Under the ADR Act, the Kansas Judicial Center may spend the money to support ADR in Kansas. This money does not revert to the general fund if it goes unused for the year. The legislature does not review the budget annually; however, the ADR office does provide an annual report to the Chief Justice and the legislature. No other state appropriation supports ADR.

Kentucky

Civil ADR programs received $100,000 from the state legislature. The office that handles training and civil cases received $104,000 from the court (and, therefore, indirectly from the legislature). Pretrial Services also receives money that is then funneled into ADR programs.

Louisiana

The state appears to support its ADR programs solely through fees paid by mediators.

Maine

Programs are funded entirely by user fees (filing fees and fees for service).

Maryland

Programs receive no state appropriation. In-house, court-connected ADR programs receive funding from their counties.

Massachusetts

The Massachusetts Office of Dispute Resolution (MODR), which provides dispute resolution services for the executive, judicial, and legislative branches, as well as state agencies and municipalities, received $382,719 in FY 97. MODR also collected fees from parties who participated in ADR; those fees also helped fund the office.

Michigan

ADR programs are funded from court cost revenues.

Minnesota

ADR programs fall under the Office of State Court Administration, which maintains a roster of eligible ADR practitioners for use by parties. The annual budget, used to cover administrative costs of maintaining the roster, is approximately $50,000. Most court-connected ADR programs are local ventures; these receive no state money.

Mississippi

There are a number of pilot programs funded locally through the court system. If the pilot programs become statewide programs, there may be an attempt to obtain funding from the legislature.

Missouri

The Office of the State Courts Administrator receives approximately $136,000 annually from the Division of Child Support Enforcement. Individual courts receive portions of this money through grants in order to support custody and visitation mediation services.

Montana

Programs receive no state appropriation. All ADR programs are locally-funded.

Nebraska

There was a $345,000 appropriation from the state for mediation. The money went to the Office of Dispute Resolution (ODR), which is a unit of the State Court Administrator’s office. The ODR then sends the money to six state-approved non-profit mediation centers.

Nevada

There was no state appropriation. Civil arbitration programs receive about $250,000 from court costs. Mediation programs receive about $1 million from local governments.

New Hampshire

ADR programs receive no direct funding from the state. They do receive funding indirectly from the state court budget. Even this indirect amount is minimal; the programs rely on volunteers and part time staff.

New Jersey

There is no state appropriation. The arbitration program is authorized by statute to collect money from trial de novo fees to cover administrative costs and to pay the arbitrators. Mediation is done by court staff and is therefore part of the general court budget. For example, law clerks are trained to mediate small claims cases. A few people (about 30) serve as mediators for custody and visitation issues. They are regular court staff and have no separate budget.

New Mexico

ADR programs are funded by a combination of state appropriations and court costs from civil cases. In Albuquerque, the budget is about $300,000, 20% of which is state money. The state as a whole has an estimated budget of $700,000, again, 20% of which comes from the state. This system is very decentralized and includes several pilot programs; individual clerk budgets must be examined for firmer numbers. However, most of the money does come from the civil court costs.

New York

The Community Dispute Resolution Centers Program receives $3,412,853 in state grants and $3,093,295 from local matching funds for its programs, for a total of $6,506,148. A state statute requires a 50-50 match after the first $20,000. Forty-eight percent of the funds come from local revenue. See the attached chart from the annual report of the Community Dispute Resolution Centers Program.

North Carolina

There are several ADR programs, all of which are funded differently. The mediated settlement program is party-paid but receives a $30,000 annual continuation budget from the state; however, this money goes unused and returns to the state because the money from party-paid certification and renewal fees is enough to cover expenses. A new pilot program to handle property issues in divorce cases will operate similarly; this program expects to receive $30,000 seed money from the state.

The total expenditure by the arbitration program in FY 97-98 was $739,281. An estimated $150,000 of that figure was agency money borrowed from the lapsed salary fund to cover extra costs due to increased arbitration activity. Therefore, the state appropriation for this program was about $589,281. The arbitration program serves 62 of North Carolina’s 100 counties.

Custody and visitation mediation programs are state-funded and serve 45 of the state’s 100 counties. For FY 97-98, these programs received $918,615 from the state.

Quasi-court-annexed local and neighborhood dispute resolution programs receive a significant amount of funding from the state. These dispute settlement centers are independent nonprofit organizations. There are 27 centers that serve 65 of the state’s 100 counties. In FY 97-98, these centers received a total of $986,660 from the state.

Ohio

There are two branches of ADR administration, the independent Ohio Commission on ADR and pilots administered by the Supreme Court. The Commission received $750,000 in state assessments; it also receives money from various grants. The Supreme Court programs received $1.3 million from the state and about $200,000 in grants. Before 1996, Supreme Court programs received less than $300,000 from state assessments.

Oklahoma

The total ADR budget is $717,000, $410,00 of which comes from court cost revenues, and $307,000 of which comes from state appropriations. The programs have been authorized to use court cost revenues since 1985 and to receive state appropriations since 1994. With this budget, the state is able to respond to 10,000 requests for mediation services annually. For more information about ADR programs in Oklahoma, including the latest annual report, please see the Oklahoma Supreme Court Network website.

Oregon

The state ADR office supports mainly public policy (environmental) and community-based programs. In 1997, the amount received from the legislature was $527,000; note that a very small portion of this (not broken out) was devoted to court-connected mediation efforts.

Pennsylvania

There are no statewide ADR programs; local programs do not appear to receive any state money.

Rhode Island

There is no state ADR program; hence, there is no state appropriation.

South Carolina

ADR programs received $100,000 in non-recurring funds from the state to fund pilot programs that served two counties in FY 97. In FY 98, the state was to provide $300,000 for four additional counties. The future of this funding depends in part on whether ADR (both mediation and arbitration) will be voluntary or court-ordered.

South Dakota

All ADR in South Dakota is privately done. Therefore, there are no court-connected programs that would receive money from the state legislature.

Tennessee

The state ADR Commission received $100,000 from the legislature. (As of January 2000, the amount of this annual appropriation had not changed.)

Texas

Counties may assess a $10 surcharge to support ADR programs. There does not appear to be any state appropriation supporting ADR.

Utah

Programs rely primarily on court cost revenues ($120,000). State assessments provide $30,000 for VORP and $20,000 for custody and visitation.

Vermont

There was a $140,000 state appropriation, $20,000 of which went to small claims court programs and $120,000 of which went to family court mediation programs. Some programs also received a small amount ($5-10,000) from their respective counties.

Virginia

Administrative costs for the Department of Dispute Resolution Services fall under the general judicial branch budget. For five years prior to 1998, free mediation was provided; the Department reimbursed mediators. In FY 1998, for the first time the Department received $200,000 from the General Assembly for court-connected programs. The Department also receives an annual $60,000 grant from the Department of Social Services to fund custody and visitation mediation services.

West Virginia

There is no state ADR office, and the legislature appropriated no funds for ADR in FY 97.

Wisconsin

ADR programs receive no state appropriation. The only state ADR program is the Medical Mediation Panel. It is a state agency that receives $370,000 annually from assessments against doctors in hospitals.

Wyoming

The state discontinued its appropriation to a state-level office. However, the nine district courts each receive money in amounts of approximately $1000-$5000 to support ADR programs.