National Reports

See also the State Fines, Fees and Bail Practices Interactive Map for all state reports.

U.S. Commission on Civil Rights Briefing: Targeted Fines and Fees against Low-Income People of Color (March 2017). Briefing materials can found on the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights website.


Karin D. Martin, Sandra Susan and Wendy Still (January 2017) Shackled to Debt: Criminal Justice Financial Obligations and the Barriers to Re-Entry They Create.


Vera Institute for Justice (January 2017) Past Due: Examining the Costs and Consequences of Charging for Justice in New Orleans.


Joshua Aiken, Prison Policy Initiative (December 2016) Reinstating Common Sense: How Driver's License Suspensions for Drug Offenses Unrelated to Driving Are Falling Out of Favor.


Criminal Justice Policy Program, Harvard Law School (October 2016) Moving Beyond Money: A Primer on Bail Reform.


Criminal Justice Policy Program, Harvard Law School (September 2016) Confronting Criminal Justice Debt: A Guide for Policy Reform.

    Vera Institute for Justice (May 2016) Justice in Review: New Trends in State Sentencing and Corrections 2014-2015.

American Bar Association Commission on the Future of Legal Services (2016) Report on the Future of Legal Services Recommendation 9.2 9.2. Administrative fines and fees should be adjusted to avoid a disproportionate impact on the poor and to avoid incarceration due to nonpayment of fines and fees.


U.S. Department of Justice’s Office of Justice Programs Diagnostic Center (2016) Resource Guide:  Reforming the Assessment and Enforcement of Fines and Fees.


Atkinson, Torie (2016) A Fine Scheme: How Municipal Fines Become Crushing Debt in the Shadow of the New Debtors’ Prisons Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review.



Strong, Suzanne M. (2016) State-Administered Indigent Defense Systems 2013 Bureau of Justice Statistics.


Zatz, Noah, et al. (2016) Get To Work or Go To Jail: Workplace Rights Under Threat, UCLA Institute for Research on Labor and Employment.



Brennan Center for Justice (2015) Charging Inmates Perpetuates Mass Incarceration.


Council of Economic Advisers (2015)  Fines, Fees, and Bail Payments in the Criminal Justice System that Disproportionately Impact the Poor.



Brennan Center for Justice (2015) Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Jails: Recommendations for Local Practice.


Human Rights Watch (2014) Profiting from Probation, America’s “Offender-Funded” Probation Industry.



National Institute of Corrections (2014) Fundamentals of Bail: A Resource Guide for Pretrial Practitioners and a Framework for American Pretrial Reform.



Center for Community Alternatives (2013) When All Else Fails, Fining the Family.


Brennan Center for Justice (2010) Criminal Justice Debt: A Barrier to Reentry.


The Council of State Governments Justice Center (2007) Repaying Debts.